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{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2023}}
{{Infobox French commune
|name                   = Salaunes
|commune status         = [[Communes of France|Commune]]
|image                  = Mairie Salaunes1.JPG
|caption                = The town hall in Salaunes
|arrondissement         = Lesparre-Médoc
|canton                 = Le Sud-Médoc
|INSEE                  = 33494
|postal code            = 33160
|mayor                  = Damien Hoareau<ref>{{cite web|title=Répertoire national des élus: les maires|url=https://www.data.gouv.fr/fr/datasets/r/2876a346-d50c-4911-934e-19ee07b0e503|publisher=data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises|date=30 November 2023|language=fr}}</ref>
|term                   = 2023&ndash;2026
|intercommunality       = Médulienne
|coordinates            = {{coord|44.9372|-0.8292|format=dms|display=inline,title}}
|elevation m            = 49
|elevation min m        = 41
|elevation max m        = 51
|area km2               = 42.64
|population             = {{France metadata Wikidata|population_total}}
|population date        = {{France metadata Wikidata|population_as_of}}
|population footnotes   = {{France metadata Wikidata|population_footnotes}}
}}

'''Salaunes''' ({{IPA-fr|salɔn}}; {{lang-oc|Salaunas}}) is a [[Communes of France|commune]] in the [[Gironde]] [[Departments of France|department]] in [[Nouvelle-Aquitaine]] in southwestern [[France]].

==Population==
{{Historical populations
|align=left|
1962|310|
1968|342|
1975|397|
1982|579|
1990|561|
1999|571|
2008|720
}}
{{clear left}}

==See also==
*[[Communes of the Gironde department]]

==References==
{{reflist}}

{{commons category}}
{{Gironde communes}}

{{authority control}}

[[Category:Communes of Gironde]]


{{Gironde-geo-stub}}
{{short description|Type of aircraft carrier}}
[[File:HMS Liverpool Escorts Russian Carrier Admiral Kuznetsov MOD 45153590 (cropped).jpg|thumb|Russian fleet carrier [[Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov|Admiral Kuznetsov]]]]
[[File:INS Vikramaditya - 10.jpg|thumb|[[INS Viraat]] (top), a [[Light aircraft carrier|light carrier]], and [[INS Vikramaditya]] (bottom), a medium-sized fleet carrier.]]
A '''fleet carrier''' is an [[aircraft carrier]] designed to operate with the main fleet of a nation's [[navy]]. The term was developed during [[World War II]], to distinguish it from the [[escort carrier]] and other less capable types.<ref>[[Michael C. Horowitz]], "The Diffusion of Military Power", Princeton University Press, 2010, {{ISBN|978-0-691-14396-5}}, [https://books.google.com/books?id=OxsrirXet2gC&pg=PA68 p. 68].</ref> In addition to many medium-sized carriers, [[supercarrier]]s, as well as some [[light carrier]]s, are also classed as fleet carriers.<ref>[[Michael C. Horowitz]], "The Diffusion of Military Power", Princeton University Press, 2010, {{ISBN|978-0-691-14396-5}}, [https://books.google.com/books?id=OxsrirXet2gC&pg=PA65 p. 65].</ref>

==History==
Aircraft carriers were designed in the years between [[World War I]] and [[World War II]]. [[Flight deck]]s were installed on several different types of ships to explore the possibilities of operating naval aircraft without the performance limitations of flotation devices required for [[seaplane]]s and [[flying boat]]s. The most successful of these early aircraft carriers were built from [[battlecruiser]]s. Battlecruisers typically had a speed of about {{convert|30|knot|kph}}, which was several knots faster than the speed of contemporary [[battleship]]s. Additional speed was not necessary for maintaining station with the battle fleet, but enabled the carrier to catch up with the battle fleet after temporarily leaving formation to turn into the wind for [[Launch and recovery cycle|launch or recovery of aircraft]]. The speed of the carrier during launch effectively decreased the takeoff distance for embarked aircraft, so faster carriers could operate heavier aircraft with greater range and superior combat capability. As such naval aircraft became operational, no nation could risk fielding less capable aircraft; so the speed of later purpose-designed aircraft carriers was set by the speed of the converted battle cruisers. The [[Washington Naval Treaty]] of 1922 limited the displacement of purpose-designed aircraft carriers to 23,000 tons.<ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=David |title =Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Arco Publishing |date =1977 |location =New York |pages =1&2 |isbn =0-668-04164-1}}</ref>

The idea of a modern fleet carrier was developed in 1931 by Admirals [[Joseph J. Clark|J.J. Clark]] and [[Harry E. Yarnell]] of the [[United States Navy]]. Fleet carriers, instead of operating as scouts for the fleet, would operate in unison with the fleet, to ward off air attacks and to strike opposing forces from the air. Cruisers and destroyers would protect fleet carriers. The fleet carriers would then displace battleships as the preeminent assets of the surface fleet.<ref>Terry C Pierce, "Warfighting and Disruptive Technologies", Taylor & Francis, 2005, {{ISBN|978-0-415-70189-1}}, p. 127.</ref> A fleet carrier would carry more than 50 aircraft, and be fast enough to keep up with other major elements of the fleet, such as cruisers and battleships.<ref>{{citation | first = Stanley | last = Sandler | title = World War II in the Pacific | publisher = Taylor & Francis | year = 2001 | isbn = 978-0-8153-1883-5 | chapter = Aircraft Carriers: Japanese, U.S., and British}}.</ref>

As combat experience demonstrated the importance of aircraft carriers, numerous ships were rapidly converted to operate aircraft during World War II; and it became important to differentiate ships with the speed and size allowed by the Washington Naval Treaty from ships that were slower and/or carried fewer aircraft. Ships of similar speed carrying fewer aircraft were identified as light aircraft carriers (CVL) and ships of lower speed became known as escort aircraft carriers (CVE). '''Fleet aircraft carrier''' became the term to distinguish front-line aircraft carriers from the generic description of any warship carrying aircraft.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Dunnigan |first1=James F. |last2=Nofi |first2=Albert A. |title =Victory at Sea |url=https://archive.org/details/victoryatseaworl0000dunn |url-access=limited |publisher =William Morrow & Company |date =1995 |location =New York |pages =[https://archive.org/details/victoryatseaworl0000dunn/page/80 80]–88 |isbn =0-688-14947-2}}</ref>

In the post-war era, the United States Navy sought to give aircraft carriers a strategic bombing capability in addition to their tactical role. The largest bombs carried by carrier aircraft during the second world war had been about {{convert|2000|lb|kg}} but experience had indicated some hardened targets like [[submarine pen]]s were impervious to bombs of less than {{convert|12,000|lb|kg}}. The fleet carriers of World War II were incapable of operating meaningful numbers of aircraft large enough to carry such heavy bombs over anticipated distances with performance characteristics to avoid defending aircraft. The term fleet carrier then evolved to differentiate the [[supercarrier]]s designed for strategic bombing roles from the older fleet carriers delegated limited tactical roles like [[Anti-submarine warfare carrier|anti-submarine]] (CVS) or [[Landing Platform Helicopter|amphibious warfare]] (LPH).<ref>{{cite book |last=Friedman |first=Norman |title =U.S. Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Naval Institute Press |date =1983 |location =Annapolis, Maryland |pages =225–231 |isbn =0-87021-739-9}}</ref>

==Comparison of World War II fleet carriers==
The following is not [[List of aircraft carriers of World War II|an exhaustive list]], but does provide context by comparing some examples, from three types, of fleet carriers active during WWII.

{|class="wikitable sortable"
!Name
!Type
!Nation
!Displacement
!Speed
!Aircraft
!Reference
|-
|[[Japanese aircraft carrier Akagi|''Akagi'']]
|battlecruiser conversion
|Japan
|36,500 tons
|31 knots
|72
|<ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=David |title =Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Arco Publishing |date =1977 |location =New York |page =15 |isbn =0-668-04164-1}}</ref>
|-
|[[Lexington-class aircraft carrier|''Lexington'']]
|battlecruiser conversion
|US
|36,000 tons
|34 knots
|88
|<ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=David |title =Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Arco Publishing |date =1977 |location =New York |page =54 |isbn =0-668-04164-1}}</ref>
|-
|[[Courageous-class aircraft carrier|''Courageous'']]
|battlecruiser conversion
|UK
|22,500 tons
|30 knots
|42
|<ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=David |title =Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Arco Publishing |date =1977 |location =New York |page =40 |isbn =0-668-04164-1}}</ref>
|-
|[[Yorktown-class aircraft carrier|''Yorktown'']]
|Washington Naval Treaty
|US
|19,800 tons
|32 knots
|79
|<ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=David |title =Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Arco Publishing |date =1977 |location =New York |page =57 |isbn =0-668-04164-1}}</ref>
|-
|[[HMS Ark Royal (91)|''Ark Royal'']]
|Washington Naval Treaty
|UK
|22,000 tons
|31 knots
|54
|<ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=David |title =Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Arco Publishing |date =1977 |location =New York |page =42 |isbn =0-668-04164-1}}</ref>
|-
|[[Japanese aircraft carrier Hiryū|''Hiryū'']]
|Washington Naval Treaty
|Japan
|17,300 tons
|34 knots
|64
|<ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=David |title =Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Arco Publishing |date =1977 |location =New York |page =21 |isbn =0-668-04164-1}}</ref>
|-
|[[Illustrious-class aircraft carrier|''Illustrious'']]
|post-treaty production
|UK
|23,000 tons
|30 knots
|33
|<ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=David |title =Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Arco Publishing |date =1977 |location =New York |page =44 |isbn =0-668-04164-1}}</ref>
|-
|[[Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier|''Shōkaku'']]
|post-treaty production
|Japan
|25,675 tons
|34 knots
|72
|<ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=David |title =Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Arco Publishing |date =1977 |location =New York |page =24 |isbn =0-668-04164-1}}</ref>
|-
|[[Essex-class aircraft carrier|''Essex'']]
|post-treaty production
|US
|27,100 tons
|33 knots
|90
|<ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=David |title =Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Arco Publishing |date =1977 |location =New York |page =61 |isbn =0-668-04164-1}}</ref>
|-
|}

==Embarked aircraft==
The earliest carrier aircraft were designed as fighters, scouts and gunfire observers. [[Torpedo bomber]]s were developed to slow enemy ships so friendly battleships might catch and sink them. Dive bombing tactics were developed as aircraft strength improved through the 1930s, but limited aircraft capacity encouraged production of dual-purpose [[fighter-bomber]]s or scout-bombers rather than dedicated [[dive bomber]]s.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Potter |first1=E.B. |last2=Nimitz |first2=Chester W. |author-link2 =Chester W. Nimitz |title =Sea Power |url=https://archive.org/details/seapowernavalhis0000pott |url-access=registration |publisher =Prentice-Hall |date =1960 |location =Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey |pages =[https://archive.org/details/seapowernavalhis0000pott/page/635 635]–639 |isbn=978-0-13-796870-1 }}</ref> Japanese and American fleet carriers usually carried fighter squadrons, torpedo bomber squadrons, and dive bomber squadrons through World War II;<ref>Joseph A. Springer, "Inferno: The Epic Life and Death Struggle of the USS Franklin in World War II", Zenith, 2007, {{ISBN|978-0-7603-2982-5}}, p. 28.</ref> but British fleet carriers were less likely to include a dive bomber squadron.<ref>{{cite book |last=Macintyre |first=Donald |title =Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Ballantine Books |date =1968 |location =New York |pages =34&35 }}</ref> The fleet carriers' longer range bombers were often used for the scouting role.<ref>{{cite book |last =Tillman |first =Barrett |title =the dauntless dive bomber of world war two |publisher =Naval Institute Press |date =1976 |location =Annapolis, Maryland |page =[https://archive.org/details/dauntlessdivebom00barr/page/15 15] |isbn =0-87021-569-8 |url-access =registration |url =https://archive.org/details/dauntlessdivebom00barr/page/15 }}</ref>

By the time of the [[Korean War]], the typical United States Navy fleet carrier embarked two squadrons of jet fighters, two squadrons of piston fighter-bombers, and a squadron of attack planes. Smaller numbers of specialized aircraft were also carried, including [[night fighter]]s, night-attack bombers, and planes uniquely modified for [[aerial reconnaissance]], [[airborne early warning and control]] (AEW), [[electronic countermeasure]]s (ECM), and [[carrier onboard delivery]] (COD). When the supercarriers became operational, they carried a heavy attack squadron, two light attack squadrons, and two fighter squadrons with similar numbers of specialized aircraft, except the night fighters and bombers. As improved aircraft sensors became available, one or more full squadrons of fighters and bombers became capable of night operations.<ref>{{cite book |last=Friedman |first=Norman |title =U.S. Aircraft Carriers |publisher =Naval Institute Press |date =1983 |location =Annapolis, Maryland |pages =21&22 |isbn =0-87021-739-9}}</ref>

Early United States 21st-century fleet carriers typically embarked 45 [[McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet]] aircraft for traditional fighter, attack and ECM roles with twelve [[Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk]] helicopters, four [[Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeye]] AEW aircraft and two [[Grumman C-2 Greyhound]] COD aircraft.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Alvarez |first1=Beto |last2=Robbins |first2=Gary |date=4 July 2014 |title=The Fleet |journal=[[U-T San Diego]] |pages=10&11 }}</ref>

==See also==
* [[Escort carrier]]
* [[Helicopter carrier]]
* [[List of aircraft carriers]]
* [[Seaplane tender]]

==References==
{{reflist|30em}}

{{Warship types of the 19th & 20th centuries}}

[[Category:Aircraft carriers]]